Menopause: Symptoms, Causes, And More

Menopause is a biological process that all women experience as they age. It is defined as the natural cessation of menstruation, and it typically occurs between the ages of 45 and 55. 

While menopause is a natural process, it can often be accompanied by several symptoms that can be disruptive to a woman’s life.

These symptoms can include hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, sleep problems, and more. 

There are a variety of treatments available to help manage menopause symptoms, and it’s important to speak to your doctor to find the best option for you.

In this article, we have discussed everything you need to know about menopause.


Symptoms Of Menopause

The following is a list of symptoms of menopause:

  • Hot Flashes

    A hot flash is a sudden and temporary feeling of warmth, often accompanied by a flush or redness of the skin.

    Hot flashes can vary in intensity from mild to severe and can last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes.

  • Night Sweats

    Night sweats are sudden, intense episodes of sweating that can wake you from sleep in a drenched condition. Daytime night sweats are also possible. 

    Night sweats are often accompanied by sudden hot flashes and brief surges of body temperature. Hot flashes and night sweats are sometimes called “power surges.”

  • Vaginal Dryness

    During menopause, the levels of the hormone estrogen decline, which can lead to vaginal dryness.

    This can cause symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning, and soreness. intercourse may also be painful.

  • Mood Swings

    As hormone levels fluctuate, many women report feeling irritable, anxious, or depressed.

    These mood swings can be severe enough to impact your quality of life.

  • Irritability

    Several different factors can contribute to irritability during menopause.

    Fluctuating hormone levels are one of the most common culprits, as they can cause mood swings and feelings of anxiety.

  • Moodiness

    Moodiness is often one of the first symptoms of menopause.

    As a woman’s hormone levels begin to fluctuate, she may experience drastic changes in her mood and emotions.

    These changes can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, fatigue, and anxiety.
  • Difficulty Sleeping

    Hormonal fluctuations are a major culprit, as they can lead to hot flashes and night sweats that make it difficult to fall asleep and stay asleep.

    Mood swings, anxiety, and stress can also make it difficult to wind down at night.

    And as we age, our sleep patterns naturally change and we tend to wake up more frequently during the night.

  • Weight Gain

    Several factors can contribute to weight gain during menopause, including hormonal changes, a decrease in muscle mass, and a decrease in metabolism.

  • Joint Pain

    The pain is caused by the loss of estrogen, which leads to the thinning of the joint tissues. The most common areas affected are the knees, hips, and hands.

    The pain can range from mild to severe, and it can be accompanied by stiffness, inflammation, and joint degeneration.

  • Headaches

    It is estimated that up to 75% of women experience headaches during menopause.

    There are a variety of different types of headaches that can occur, from tension headaches to migraines.

Causes Of Menopause

Induced menopause is typically caused by:

  • Natural Decline Of Reproductive Hormones

    It is a common misconception that menopause is caused by a woman’s ovaries running out of eggs. However, the truth is that a decline in reproductive hormones causes menopause.

    These hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, play a vital role in a woman’s reproductive health and fertility.

    When these hormones decline, it can cause a woman’s menstrual cycle to become irregular and eventually stop altogether.

    Some lifestyle factors may contribute to the early onset of menopause, such as stress and smoking, but the most significant factor is age.

  • Oophorectomy

    When a woman undergoes surgery to remove her ovaries (oophorectomy), she no longer produces eggs or hormones.

    This causes her to enter menopause, which is characterized by the cessation of menstruation.

    This surgery can be done for a variety of reasons, such as to treat ovarian cancer. If both ovaries are removed, menopause will occur immediately.

    If only one ovary is removed, menopause may still occur, but it may take several years for periods to become irregular and eventually stop.

  • Chemotherapy And Radiation Therapy

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can both cause menopause.

    Chemotherapy drugs kill all rapidly dividing cells, which unfortunately includes healthy eggs.

    This can lead to immediate menopause, where hormone levels drop sharply and menstruation stops.

    Radiation therapy can also damage the ovaries and lead to menopause, but this is usually a gradual process that happens over time.

  • Pelvic Injuries

    Pelvic injuries can cause the ovarian arteries to lose their blood supply, resulting in the ovaries’ decreased production of estrogen.

    This can cause menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness.

    In some cases, pelvic injuries can also lead to a complete loss of ovarian function and premature menopause.

  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    This can cause a woman to experience menopause-like symptoms, such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness.

    POI can also cause difficulty getting pregnant and may lead to early menopause.

    There are a variety of causes of POI, including autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, and certain infections.

Complications Of Menopause

  • Osteoporosis

    The hormones progesterone and estrogen drop in concentration after menopause.

    This drop in hormone levels has the potential to result in osteoporosis and bone loss.

    When someone has osteoporosis, their bones deteriorate and become brittle. They are more vulnerable to breaking as a result.

  • Urinary Incontinence

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women, and it can become even more common during menopause.

    This elevated risk is caused by several factors. First, during menopause, the levels of the hormone estrogen decrease.

    Estrogen helps to keep the muscles of the bladder and urethra strong.

    So, when the levels of estrogen decline, these muscles can become weaker and less able to hold urine in the bladder. Second, menopause can cause changes in the vaginal area.

    This can include vaginal atrophy, which is the thinning and inflammation of the vaginal walls.

    These changes can make it harder for the muscles of the bladder and urethra to close properly and can lead to urinary incontinence.

    Further, menopause can lead to changes in the pelvic floor muscles.

  • Sexual Function

    As women approach menopause, they may notice a change in their sexual function.

    This is due to the hormonal changes that occur during menopause, which can affect a woman’s sexual response.

    During menopause, estrogen levels decline, which can lead to a decrease in vaginal lubrication and thinning of the vaginal walls.

    These changes can make sex painful and less enjoyable. In addition, menopause can also affect a woman’s sexual desire, which can make it difficult to maintain a healthy and active sex life.

  • Weight Gain

    Several factors can contribute to this weight gain, including changes in hormone levels, lifestyle choices, and the natural aging process.

    While menopause itself doesn’t cause weight gain, the hormonal changes that occur during this time can make it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.

    For example, the decrease in estrogen levels can cause a decrease in muscle mass, leading to a slower metabolism.

    Additionally, many women change their lifestyle during menopause, such as reduced activity levels and changes in eating habits, which can also contribute to weight gain.

Diagnosis Of Menopause

  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone Test

    This test measures the levels of FSH in the blood. FSH is a hormone that helps to stimulate egg production.

    As women approach menopause, the levels of FSH in the blood typically increase.

  • Estradiol Test

    This test measures the levels of estradiol in the blood. Estradiol is a type of estrogen, and the levels of this hormone typically decline during menopause.

  • Thyroid Function Test

    This test is used to assess the function of the thyroid gland. To control the body’s metabolism, the thyroid gland generates hormones.

Treatments Of Menopause

There are a variety of treatments that can relieve the symptoms of menopause.

Some of the most common treatments include hormone replacement therapy, lifestyle changes, and complementary and alternative therapies.

The best method of treating menopause is hormone replacement therapy (HRT). It can relieve hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and other symptoms.

Lifestyle changes, such as maintaining a healthy weight, getting regular exercise, and managing stress, can also help alleviate menopausal symptoms.

Additionally, complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and massage, can be beneficial.

Consult your doctor about the most effective course of treatment if you’re having menopausal symptoms.

Home Remedies For Menopause

The following are the home remedies for symptom control during menopause:

  • Keep A Cool Environment

    Hot flashes and night sweats can be triggered by heat, so try to keep your home cool.

    This may mean turning down the thermostat or using a fan to keep cool.
  • Avoid Trigger Foods

    Some foods can trigger hot flashes, such as spicy foods, caffeine, and alcohol.

    Try to avoid these foods or limit your intake to see if it helps reduce your symptoms.
  • Dress In Layers

    Wearing layers of clothing can help you adjust to sudden changes in body temperature.

  • Exercise

    Exercise can help to improve overall health and manage stress, which can trigger hot flashes.

  • Relaxation Techniques

    Relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation, can help to reduce stress and manage hot flashes.


In conclusion, menopause is a normal physiological process that all women will go through at some point in their lives.

The average age of menopause is 51, but it can occur anywhere from 45 to 55.

The most common symptom of menopause is hot flashes, but other symptoms can include night sweats, mood swings, and vaginal dryness.

There are a variety of treatments available to help women ease their way through menopause.