8 Functions Of Proteins

Within organisms, proteins carry out a plethora of tasks, such as metabolic activities, molecular transportation, response to stimuli, and DNA replication. Long chains of amino acids make up proteins.

There are only 20 amino acids that are commonly found in the human body, but even with a small number of monomers, they could be ordered in countless different ways to change the protein’s 3-dimensional structure and function.

The protein’s basic structure is recognized as being its straightforward sequence. Protein function is governed by its structure, which lays the groundwork for its interaction with other molecules in the body.

Peptide bonds, created by a dehydration reaction, bind each amino acid to its neighbor. A polypeptide is an extended chain of amino acids. In cells, proteins perform a variety of tasks.

They function as enzymes that control how substances flow through cell membranes, promote structural integrity, organize cell signaling pathways, and ward off sickness. Here, we will be looking at the functions of proteins.

Functions Of Protein

The following are the main functions of proteins:

  1. Cell’s Structure And Form Are Preserved

    This is a very crucial biological function carried out by proteins. The protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton are linked together.

    The microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments that make up the cytoskeleton are structured proteins.

    The cytoskeleton’s arrangement of all these parts is what keeps cells in their predetermined shapes.

    Actin and tubulin are significant cytoskeleton-building proteins. These proteins are necessary for a cell to keep its structure; otherwise, this would not be feasible.

  2. Controls Bodily Functions

    Proteins control various bodily functions. Enzymes, for instance, are proteins that hasten bodily chemical reactions.

    Without them, basic processes like the digestion of food would occur too slowly to sustain your existence.

    Enzymes could be compared to proteins that give your body’s operations a boost, much to how your morning coffee starts the day going.

    Hormones, which are proteins that control the activity of cells or organs, have an impact on a variety of bodily functions.

    Hormones act as chemical messengers that deliver orders from one part of your body to another.

    For instance, the hormone insulin controls sugar by communicating to your body’s cells how much sugar is present in your blood.

  3. Transmitting Messages

    Many important hormones, including HGH, glucagon, and insulin are classified as proteins and peptides (human growth hormone).

    These hormones, which are produced and released by endocrine glands and tissues, circulate in the blood and transmit chemical signals to specific organs and tissues.

    As an illustration, the ADH (antidiuretic hormone) tells the kidneys to retain water, whereas the ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) causes the release of cortisol to control metabolism and stifle the immune response.

  4. Regulation Of Genes

    The expression of genes is regulated by proteins. Gene expression is the process through which a gene’s information is transcribed into mRNA, which is then utilized by ribosomes to produce the protein that the gene codes for.

    Transcription factors manage this gene expression mechanism. Only the genes for proteins that the body currently needs could be transcribed thanks to these transcription factors.

    Proteins also exist in nature as transcription factors. Therefore, proteins control gene expression to control their own synthesis.

  5. Involve In Energy Production

    Proteins include some amino acids that could be broken down and converted into energy. In order to provide cellular energy, only about 15% of ingested proteins are catabolized daily.

    The citric acid cycle could be fed amino acids that have been broken down by the liver into the carbon skeleton. This is comparable to how glucose is converted into ATP.

    A person’s body will utilize more amino acids to produce energy if their diet is deficient in fats and carbs, which inhibits the production of new proteins and breaks down muscle proteins.

    Alternatively, additional amino acids will be broken down if a person consumes more protein than their body requires.

  6. Maintaining pH Levels

    One of the main functions of proteins is to control the levels of acid and base. For instance, the protein hemoglobin aggressively attaches to acids to support keeping the pH of human blood at a normal 7.4.

    Another protein buffer that neutralizes excess hydrogen ions when levels go too high is phosphate.

  7. Transportation Of Different Substances Through The Blood

    Although blood serves as a transport medium, some chemicals that cannot dissolve in the blood must be held and transported by proteins. The body needs proteins to do this function in order to function properly.

    The primary transport protein in the blood is albumin. For fatty acids, thyroid hormones, steroids, heavy metals, bilirubin, calcium ions, and lipophilic medications, it serves as a carrier.

    Another transport protein in blood is known as prealbumin, which delivers steroid hormones, thyroxine, and vitamin A.

  8. Healing Of Wounds And Regeneration Of Tissue

    The inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling phases make up the three stages of wound healing, all of which require proteins.

    For instance, your flesh would burn red and swell up if you accidentally poked your finger with a needle while stitching.

    The bleeding would stop in a short while. Bradykinin and other proteins widen blood vessels at the site of injury to start the healing process.

    In order to halt the bleeding, a clot is formed by platelets being held together by another protein known as fibrin.

    During the proliferative phase, cells enter the damaged tissue to repair it by putting new collagen fibers there. The collagen fibers aid in bringing the edges of the wound together.

Conclusion

Proteins are biological molecules made of amino acids that are involved in almost all cellular processes. The translation is the process by which proteins are produced and takes place in the cytoplasm.

The amino acids that make up a normal protein are all from the same set. Each protein is uniquely suited for its intended use.

A protein molecule is significantly larger than a salt or sugar molecule because it is made up of several amino acids that are linked together to create lengthy chains, much like beads on a string.

About 20 distinct amino acids are found in proteins on a natural basis. Proteins with similar functions share a similar amino acid sequence and makeup.

The characteristics of the amino acids that make up proteins could be attributed to recognized connections between function and structure, even though it is not yet possible to explain all of a protein’s functions from its amino acid sequence.