Sperm Motility: Causes, Types, Symptoms, And More

Everyone is made aware that for a pregnancy to occur, the sperm must contact the ovum and bond with it. Couples are then left unable to get pregnant.

In actuality, the majority of factors that adversely affect the movement of your sperm, the ones that matter, are completely reversible.

Sperm must therefore be sufficiently mobile to reach the ovum. Low sperm motility causes the sperm to have poor swimming ability and to perish before reaching the ovum.

Sperm motility, one of the main factors contributing to male infertility, is a crucial factor in determining the likelihood of conception.

The percentage of sperm that exhibit any type of movement is referred to as total motility, which is another term that is occasionally used. In this article, we will be looking at sperm motility.

sperm motility


What Is Sperm Motility?

One of the most frequent causes of male factor infertility is low sperm motility. Progressive motility is the term used to describe how some sperm move in small circles while others swim in straight lines or big circles.

The term movement does not necessarily relate to forward motion. The likelihood of fertilization is greatest in sperm with progressive motility.

Sperm motility is just the rate of movement that it would be able to swim through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes for fertilization to occur.

The proportion of sperm that are truly motile, or moving, and the progression of forward speed are used to measure it. Additionally important is the sperm’s movement direction.

Types Of Sperm Motility

  • Progressive Motility

    Sperm that exhibit this sort of motility typically swim in big circles or a straight line.

  • Nonprogressiive Motility

    This kind of motility describes sperm that are moving but not moving forward, such as sperm that swims in circles or does not move in straight lines.

  • Total Motility

    This is the total amount of sperm cells that are actively migrating.

  • Immotile Sperm

    These are the completely motionless sperm cells. A small amount of immotile sperm is typical in a specimen. 

Causes Of Sperm Motlity

Males under 40 are more likely to become parents. However, sperm quality declines with aging. Between the ages of 20 and 80, motility keeps declining.

According to research, lifestyle choices have a significant impact on sperm concentration. Some of the causes of low sperm motility are,

  • Poor Lifestyle Factors

    If you have an imbalanced diet or you are living a sedentary lifestyle, then the chances of having low sperm motility are high.

  • Erection Problems

    If you are suffering from erectile dysfunction or you find it hard to keep an erection for longer or to get an erection.

  • Obesity

    If you are not living a healthy and active lifestyle because of which you are overweight. 

  • Substance Abuse

    If you are consuming alcohol, smoking, or drugs.

  • Chronic Diseases

    If you’re suffering from chronic illnesses like diabetes, renal or liver failure.

  • Genetic Conditions

    If someone in the family had already suffered from low sperm motility.

Your fertility may find difficult if your diet contains a lot of processed foods, sugar, soy, high-fat dairy, and trans fats.

You ought to prioritize leading a healthier lifestyle. This entails including more healthy foods, vitamins, minerals, and nutrients in your meals.

Symptoms Of Sperm Motility

There might not be any other symptoms but a few ones. The inability to become pregnant is the primary and most obvious indication of low sperm count.

Signs and symptoms may appear in some men who have an underlying medical condition, such as a genetic disorder, hormonal imbalance, varicocele, or a restriction of sperm mobility. Possible signs of low sperm count include,

  • Difficulties with sexual function, such as low sexual desire or simply issues maintaining an erection.
  • The area around the testicles may experience pain, inflammation, or even swelling.
  • Reduced facial and body hair, or perhaps additional chromosome or hormone abnormality signs,

Diagnosis Of Sperm Motility

The specialist will inspect the private area and research the illness. It is therefore challenging to detect a change in a man’s condition in a short period, but the results of semen analysis can reflect his condition over the previous three months.

Some tests must be performed by the doctor to determine low sperm count. Information on marital relationship behaviors, genetics, chronic ailments, existing diseases, trauma, or previous surgeries that affect fertility.

Semenogram or Semen analysis, a test in which the sperm count is determined using a microscope, such as how many sperm are present in the squares on a sample, is used to diagnose low sperm count.

Masturbation and ejaculation into a specialized sample tube can be used to collect a semen sample. However, in some regions, some men prefer to utilize a different sample technique, such as wearing a specific condom to contain sperm during sex, due to cultural and religious views.

Treatment Of Sperm Motllity

The recommended course of action for you will depend on the underlying reason for your low sperm motility.

By eliminating any drugs or habits that are causing low sperm counts, you may boost your sperm count.

Other causes might require different therapies. For example:

  • Surgery will be essential for problems such as obstruction in the sperm ducts.
  • Your doctor might recommend dietary supplements for hormonal changes happening in the body.
  • Infections can be treated by antibiotics which usually is recommended by the doctor.
  • Psychotherapy is a must to deal with problems such as erection dysfunction or someone suffering from premature ejaculation.


You may not always be able to increase your sperm count. Your healthcare provider might suggest other methods to aid in reproduction if you’re trying to get pregnant.


A healthy diet may help increase sperm motility. When you and your spouse are attempting to get pregnant, the first indication that you have a low sperm count can appear.

But keep in mind that no one food is the secret to raising sperm counts. Although a low sperm count may be an indication of other disorders, it does not preclude you from becoming a father.

There are certain lifestyle adjustments you may do to enhance sperm motility in addition to treating any underlying medical issues or genetic factors that affect it.

Take regular exercise, a balanced diet, moderation in alcohol use, and, if you smoke, quit. Make sure you can get the answers you require and that you can ask the questions you want to ask.

The best strategy is to consume a balanced diet rich in nutrients, but there is some evidence that certain foods may affect sperm motility.

Talk to your healthcare practitioner and be honest while responding to all of their inquiries. Instead, the best way to increase fertility is to concentrate on your diet as a whole.